Can you measure Reiki in some way?
Reiki is often regarded by practitioners as being a ‘hot' energy. They feel extra
heat as Reiki flows. The University of Arizona has used an Extra Low Frequency meter to see if it could pick up heat changes
in the body. When practitioners reported that they were flowing Reiki, the ELF (extra low frequency) meter picked up significant
increases in emissions from e.g. the palms of the hands. The emitted energy was more marked in people who had studied to third
degree/master level. Researcher Melinda Connor said: ‘We have discovered a number of things: First, that master healers
seem to be emitting at the same time in the extra low range from 20Hz - 1000Hz, in the ultra violet, the visible light, the
infrared, the gamma and x-ray and at the 3 GHz range. I do not have the equipment to map more ranges yet. So it turns out
that potentially millions of frequencies are being emitted from a single cell."
Arizona University recruited only
highly regarded and experienced Reiki practitioners for its research who also were regularly giving Reiki. (Communication
from Melinda Connor, 2006).
Reiki Research and Stress Reduction in rats
Reiki has been shown to work on
rats and reverse the effects of gut leakage caused by stress. Please note that Reiki was compared with ‘sham-Reiki'
and a control group. Reiki reduced leakage significantly compared with the two other groups. The research indicates that Reiki
could be used to reduce the environmental stress experienced by laboratory animals and hospital patients. The researchers
went on to show that Reiki would also modulate the heart rates of stressed rats.
Here's what Ann Baldwin wrote while
on a research trip to Bristol. "I am a professor at the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA and during the last few
years I have become concerned about the environment in which animals (mainly rodents) are housed for research. I have also
become interested in Reiki. Although most facilities are extremely clean and the animals are free of disease, the environment
is often extremely noisy and I have shown that this type of noise actually causes inflammation of the animals' blood vessels
and intestine (Wilson and Baldwin, Microcirculation 5, 299-308, 1998; Wilson and Baldwin, Microcirculation 6, 189-198, 1999).
In addition, more often than not, rodents are housed in tiny cages with little or no enrichment. There is evidence to show
that noisy and/or Spartan conditions affect the scientific data obtained from rodents and so confound experimental results.
I came to Bristol for a month to study a technique to measure stress hormones in rodents so that I can provide data to show
that the animals are stressed by such living conditions. By doing this, I hope to improve the welfare of research animals
and the validity of the data obtained from them.
How does Reiki fit into this? Well, one reason that I jumped at the
chance of learning Reiki was to see whether it would help the rats that are stressed by excessive noise. The answer was yes!
(see reference). Of course, when I arrived in Bristol one of the first things I did was to search the Internet for a Reiki
group because I was curious about Reiki in England. I would be interested to see if there are any other scientists who read
this and are using Reiki in their experiments." Anne Baldwin PhD (personal communication to Jeanne Long).
Interaction with a Reiki Practitioner Decreases Noise-Induced Microvascular Damage in an Animal Model
J Altern Complement
Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;12(1):15-22.
Ann L. Baldwin, Ph.D.
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University
of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
Gary E. Schwartz, Ph.D.
Department of Psychology, Center for Frontier Medicine in Biofield
Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
Objective: To determine whether Reiki, a process of transmission of healing
energy, can significantly reduce microvascular leakage caused by exposure to excessive noise using an animal model.
Reiki is beginning to be used in hospitals to accelerate recovery. Despite many anecdotes describing Reiki's success, few
scientific studies are reported and none of those use animals. Animal models have the advantage over human subjects in that
they provide well-controlled, easily interpretable experiments. The use of noise is relevant to hospital patients because
of the excessive ambient noise in hospitals in the United Kingdom and United States. Loud noise can lead to several nonauditory
disorders in humans and animals that impair recovery. In the rat, stress from noise damages the mesenteric microvasculature,
leading to leakage of plasma into the surrounding tissue.
Design: One group of four rats simultaneously received daily
noise and Reiki, while two other groups received "sham" Reiki or noise alone. A fourth group did not receive noise
or additional treatment. The experiment was performed three times to test for reproducibility.
Outcome Measures: Average
number and area of microvascular leaks to fluorescent albumin per unit length of venule.
Results: In all three experiments,
Reiki significantly reduced the outcome measures compared to the other noise groups (sham Reiki and noise alone) (p < 0.01).
Conclusions: Application of Reiki significantly reduces noise-induced microvascular leakage in an animal model. Whether
or not these effects are caused by Reiki itself, or the relaxing effect of the Reiki practitioner, this procedure could be
useful for minimizing effects of environmental stress on research animals and hospital patients.
Reiki and Rats' heart
rates and blood pressure
J Altern Complement Med. 2008 May;14(4):417-22
1: Baldwin AL, Wagers C, Schwartz GE.
Laboratory for the Advances in Consciousness and Health, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0068,
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether application of Reiki to noise-stressed rats can reduce their
heart rates (HRs) and blood pressures. RATIONALE: In a previous study, we showed that exposure of rats to 90 dB white noise
for 15 minutes caused their HRs and blood pressures to significantly increase. Reiki has been shown to significantly decrease
HR and blood pressure in a small group of healthy human subjects. However, use of humans in such studies has the disadvantage
that experimental interpretations are encumbered by the variable of belief or skepticism regarding Reiki. For that reason,
noise-stressed rats were used as an animal model to test the efficacy of Reiki in reducing elevated HR and blood pressure.
DESIGN: Three unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotelemetric transducers were exposed daily for 8 days
to a 15-minute white noise regimen (90 dB). For the last 5 days, the rats received 15 minutes of Reiki immediately before
the noise and during the noise period. The experiment was repeated on the same animals but using sham Reiki. SETTING/LOCATION:
The animals were housed in a quiet room in University of Arizona Animal Facility. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean HRs and blood pressure
were determined before Reiki/sham Reiki, during Reiki/sham Reiki, and during the noise in each case. RESULTS: Reiki, but not
sham Reiki, significantly reduced HR compared to initial values. With Reiki, there was a high correlation between change in
HR and initial HR, suggesting a homeostatic effect. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced the rise in HR produced
by exposure of the rats to loud noise. Neither Reiki nor sham Reiki significantly affected blood pressure. CONCLUSION: Reiki
is effective in modulating HR in stressed and unstressed rats, supporting its use as a stress-reducer in humans.
18435597 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Reiki Research and anxiety reduction
1. Hartford Hospital, Connecticut
carried out research, under Dr Molly Punzo, MD into using Reiki to reduce anxiety and pain across a number of departments
including Cardiology, Orthopedic, Oncology, and Palliative Care units, as well as in the outpatient Cancer Center. During
the pilot phase, outcome measurements were obtained from patients rating their anxiety and pain pre and post Reiki sessions.
The Quality Management Department analysed the results which showed a statistically significant decrease in anxiety and pain
regardless of the specialty area. This is summarised in the diagram below. Thanks to Hartford Hospital for producing this.
Click here for more information. http://www.harthosp.org/integrativemed/therapies/reikitherapy/default.aspx
Is Reiki just a ‘placebo' effect?
We have already shown that Reiki has been demonstrated to work on animals.
In the research below, Reiki was shown to increase the growth rate of heat-shocked bacteria. The researchers also showed that
this happened effectively when Reiki practitioners had first given a treatment to a person for 30 minutes beforehand (the
healing context) as opposed to giving the Reiki treatment ‘cold' (non-healing context). The research also suggested
that the better the well-being (social, emotional and physical).of the practitioner, the more effective the treatment.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
In Vitro Effect of Reiki Treatment on Bacterial Cultures: Role of
Experimental Context and Practitioner Well-Being
Jan 2006, Vol. 12, No. 1: 7-13
Beverly Rubik, Ph.D.
Institute for Frontier Science, Oakland, CA.
Union Institute and University, Cincinnati, OH.
Audrey J. Brooks,
Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
Center for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science,
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
Gary E. Schwartz, Ph.D.
Center for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science, University
of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
Departments of Psychology, Surgery, Medicine, Neurology, and Psychology, University of Arizona,
Objective: To measure effects of Reiki treatments on growth of heat-shocked bacteria, and to determine the
influence of healing context and practitioner well-being.
Methods: Overnight cultures of Escherichia coli K12 in fresh
medium were used. Culture samples were paired with controls to minimize any ordering effects. Samples were heat-shocked prior
to Reiki treatment, which was performed by Reiki practitioners for up to 15 minutes, with untreated controls. Plate-count
assay using an automated colony counter determined the number of viable bacteria. Fourteen Reiki practitioners each completed
3 runs (n = 42 runs) without healing context, and another 2 runs (n = 28 runs) in which they first treated a pain patient
for 30 minutes (healing context). Well-being questionnaires were administered to practitioners pre-post all sessions.
No overall difference was found between the Reiki and control plates in the nonhealing context. In the healing context, the
Reiki treated cultures overall exhibited significantly more bacteria than controls (p < 0.05). Practitioner social (p <
0.013) and emotional well-being (p < 0.021) correlated with Reiki treatment outcome on bacterial cultures in the nonhealing
context. Practitioner social (p < 0.031), physical (p < 0.030), and emotional (p < 0.026) well-being correlated with
Reiki treatment outcome on the bacterial cultures in the healing context. For practitioners starting with diminished well-being,
control counts were likely to be higher than Reiki-treated bacterial counts. For practitioners starting with a higher level
of well-being, Reiki counts were likely to be higher than control counts.
Conclusions: Reiki improved growth of heat-shocked
bacterial cultures in a healing context. The initial level of well-being of the Reiki practitioners correlates with the outcome
of Reiki on bacterial culture growth and is key to the results obtained.
2. Holistic Nursing Practice:
2006 - Volume 20 - Issue 6 - p 263-272
The Effect of Reiki on Pain and Anxiety in Women With
Abdominal Hysterectomies: A Quasi-experimental Pilot Study
Vitale, Anne T. MSN, APRN, BC; O'Connor, Priscilla C. PhD,
The purpose of this pilot study was to compare reports of pain and levels
of state anxiety in 2 groups of women after abdominal hysterectomy. A quasi-experimental design was used in which the experimental
group (n = 10) received traditional nursing care plus three 30-minute sessions of Reiki, while the control group (n = 12)
received traditional nursing care. The results indicated that the experimental group reported less pain and requested fewer
analgesics than the control group. Also, the experimental group reported less state anxiety than the control group on discharge
at 72 hours postoperation. The authors recommend replication of this study with a similar population, such as women who require
nonemergency cesarian section deliveries.
3. Anxiety reduced and immune function enhanced with Reiki
correlates of Reiki Touch(sm) healing. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2001 Feb;33(4):439-45
Wardell DW, Engebretson J.
School of Nursing, University of Texas Houston Health Science Center , Houston, Texas, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND : Despite the popularity of touch therapies, theoretical understanding of the mechanisms of effect is not
well developed and there is limited research measuring biological outcomes. AIMS: The aim of this study was to test a framework
of relaxation or stress reduction as a mechanism of touch therapy. METHODS: The study was conducted in 1996 and involved the
examination of select physiological and biochemical effects and the experience of 30 minutes of Reiki, a form of touch therapy.
A single group repeated measure design was used to study Reiki Touch's effects with a convenience sample of 23 essentially
healthy subjects. Biological markers related to stress-reduction response included state anxiety, salivary IgA and cortisol,
blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR), muscle tension and skin temperature. Data were collected before, during and
immediately after the session. RESULTS : Comparing before and after measures, anxiety was significantly reduced, t(22)=2.45,
P=0.02. Salivary IgA levels rose significantly, t(19)=2.33, P=0.03, however, salivary cortisol was not statistically significant.
There was a significant drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP), F(2, 44)=6.60, P < 0.01. Skin temperature increased and
electromyograph (EMG) decreased during the treatment, but before and after differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS :
These findings suggest both biochemical and physiological changes in the direction of relaxation. The salivary IgA findings
warrant further study to explore the effects of human TT and humeral immune function.
PMID: 11251731 [PubMed
- indexed for MEDLINE]
4. On-going study in Maine into anxiety/depression/pain
REIKI: HEALING HANDS IN KENNEBUNK
Pauline M Wilson, BA, CRM
Reiki Research Study-2008-2009
Sunday, January 04, 2009
2008) I became involved in an exciting research study at the University of Southern Maine. A Reiki student of mine, who is
an associate professor at USM, received a grant to study the therapeutic effects of Reiki on patients, age 60 years and over,
who suffer from anxiety and depression and/or pain. The subjects were carefully screened, and then they answered questionnaires
to determine their levels of anxiety, depression and pain prior to starting the study. Each Reiki practitioner (master/teacher
level) met with the same subjects every week and gave 30 minutes of Reiki to each subject once a week for 8 weeks. At the
end of the 8 weeks, each subject was interviewed again to determine any change in level of anxiety, depression or pain. At
every visit each of the subjects had his or her blood pressure and pulse recorded before and after the Reiki session as well
as his level of pain. The study is still underway even though my part in the research is over. I got so much positive feedback
from the subjects that I had the privilege of working with for 8 weeks that I am already convinced of the therapeutic effects
of Reiki. I now eagerly await the tabulated results of this research study to be published .
Can you measure the biological
effects of Reiki?
This preliminary study was carried out in Glasgow and indicated that Reiki may be able to decrease
heart rate and diastolic blood pressure. The heart rate and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the Reiki
group compared to both a placebo and a control group.
1. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Nervous System Changes During Reiki Treatment: A Preliminary Study
Dec 2004, Vol. 10, No. 6: 1077-1081
Institute of Neurological Sciences, South Glasgow University Hospital NHS Trust, Glasgow, UK.
Institute of Neurological Sciences, South Glasgow University Hospital NHS Trust, Glasgow, UK.
Institute of Neurological Sciences, South Glasgow University Hospital NHS Trust, Glasgow, UK.
to investigate if a complementary therapy, Reiki, has any effect on indices of autonomic nervous system function.
Setting/Location: Quiet room in an out-patient clinic.
Subjects: Forty-five (45) subjects assigned
at random into three groups.
Interventions: Three treatment conditions: no treatment (rest only); Reiki treatment by
experienced Reiki practitioner; and placebo treatment by a person with no knowledge of Reiki and who mimicked the Reiki treatment.
Outcome measures: Quantitative measures of autonomic nervous system function such as heart rate, cardiac vagal tone, blood
pressure, cardiac sensitivity to baroreflex, and breathing activity were recorded continuously for each heartbeat. Values
during and after the treatment period were compared with baseline data.
Results: Heart rate and diastolic blood pressure
decreased significantly in the Reiki group compared to both placebo and control groups.
Conclusions: The study indicates
that Reiki has some effect on the autonomic nervous system. However, this was a pilot study with relatively few subjects and
the changes were relatively small. The results justify further, larger studies to look at the biological effects of Reiki
This paper was cited by:
Personal Interaction with a Reiki Practitioner Decreases Noise-Induced Microvascular
Damage in an Animal Model
Ann L. Baldwin, Gary E. Schwartz
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Jan
2006, Vol. 12, No. 1: 15-22
2. Immune System
The Effect of Reiki on the Immune System
Wendy Hodsdon, Elissa
Mendenhall, Rebecca Green, Sara Kates-Chinnoy, Elizabeth Wacker, and Heather Zwickey; Helfgott Research Institue at the National
College of Naturopathic Medicine, Portland, OR, 97201
Objectives: Although energy medicines such as Reiki have been shown
to have an overall effect on health, the mechanisms by which energy medicine act are currently unknown. This study examines
the effects of Reiki on cellular immunity.
Materials And Methods: Two protocols have been used. The first protocol randomized
people subjects into 3 groups: Reiki, relaxation control, or neither Reiki nor relaxation control. Blood was drawn before
treatment, immediately following treatment, or 4 hours post treatment. The second protocol exposed each subject to each treatment
through the following process: blood draw, relaxation, blood draw, Reiki, blood draw. In both studies, white blood cells were
isolated using ficoll blood tubes and stained with markers for CD4 and CD8 T-cells, B-cells, NK-cells and macrophages. All
the cells were stained with an early activation marker (CD69) to measure activation. A flow cytometer was used to quantitate
amount of activation of each cell type. In the second protocol, heart math was also used to measure general mental-emotional
Results: While this study is ongoing, preliminary results indicate an increase in cell activation in the group
of each cell type. In the second protocol, heart math was also used to measure general mental-emotional state.
Our study shows a white cell activation (most likely macrophages) in patients receiving Reiki. These results provide the basis
for further study of the immunological effects of energy medicine.
(Source = http://www.issseem.org/WS5Abstracts.html)
Can Reiki help with recovery from surgery?
See also Hartford Hospital above
1. Reiki reducing pain
medications, duration of stay and patient satisfaction
Aladydy, Patricia and Kristen Alandydy, 1999.
Reiki to Support Surgical Patients".
Journal of Nursing Care Quality , 1999 Apr;13(4): pp. 89-91.
patients at Columbia/HCA Portsmouth Regional Hospital in Portsmouth, New Hampshire are given the option of a 15 minute pre-
and post-surgery Reiki treatment. In 1998 more than 870 patients participated. As a result there was less use of pain medications,
shorter lengths of stay, and increased patient satisfaction. This article discusses how this program was set up. Plans for
the future include documentation of the benefits and the further use of complementary therapies.
(Source = Pubmed)
Complementary Therapies and Surgery
Surgery and Complementary Therapies: A Review.
Subfile: Complementary and
Format (FM): Journal Article (24).
Language(s) (LG): English.
Year Published (YR):
Author (AU): Petry, J.J.
Source (SO): Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 6(5): 64-76.
Abstract (AB): This journal article reviews the literature on the use of complementary therapies in the surgical
setting. The first part looks at the effects of psychological stress on the surgical patient, and the influence of coping
style and locus of control on surgical outcome and the choice of stress-reducing intervention. The second part reviews research
into the effects of specific complementary strategies on surgical outcomes. These strategies include relaxation techniques,
hypnosis and suggestion, imagery, acupuncture, therapeutic touch, Reiki, music, massage therapy, and herbs/supplements such
as L-arginine, bromelain, garlic, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and zinc. The evidence suggests that relaxation techniques,
imagery, and hypnosis/suggestion may have beneficial effects on anxiety, blood loss, postoperative pain, pain medication requirements,
postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, length of hospital stay, cost of care, and patient satisfaction.
These and other complementary therapies also may affect immune function, stress hormone levels, and wound healing, but more
research is needed to clarify their role in the surgical setting. The article has 5 tables and 111 references.
Descriptors (MJ): Complementary Medicine. Surgery. Dietary Supplements. Treatment Outcomes. Literature Reviews.
Descriptors (MN): Alternative Medicine.
Verification/Update Date (VE): 200104.
Notes (NT): Copyright: Yes.
Accession Number (AN): AMJA02807.
Can Reiki help with pain?
1. Reiki and pain with cancer
Control 1997 Jun;1(2):108-13. Using Reiki to manage pain: a preliminary report.
Olson K, Hanson J.
Institute , Edmonton, Alta. firstname.lastname@example.org
The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of Reiki
as an adjuvant to opioid therapy in the management of pain. Since no studies in this area could be found, a pilot study was
carried out involving 20 volunteers experiencing pain at 55 sites for a variety of reasons, including cancer. All Reiki treatments
were provided by a certified second-degree Reiki therapist. Pain was measured using both a visual analogue scale (VAS) and
a Likert scale immediately before and after the Reiki treatment. Both instruments showed a highly significant (p < 0.0001)
reduction in pain following the Reiki treatment.
PMID: 9765732 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3. Reiki and
Am J Hosp Palliat Care 1997 Jan-Feb;14(1):31-3
Reiki: a complementary therapy for life.
Hospice of the Valley , Phoenix, Arizona, USA.
Tom was diagnosed with a very aggressive cancer and received
only palliative radiation and medication. At the time of diagnosis, his symptoms suggested that he had a very limited life
expectancy. With the Reiki and his intent, he was able to achieve his goal of long-term stability with freedom from immobilizing
pain and swelling. Tom's comfort and quality of life improved dramatically, and he is living well with his cancer. Reiki has
been associated with dramatic results for many patients. The importance of the patient's intent during Reiki treatments cannot
be overemphasized. Some general trends seen with Reiki include: periods of stabilization in which there is time to enjoy the
last days of one's life; a peaceful and calm passing if death is imminent; and relief from pain, anxiety, dyspnea and edema.
Reiki is a valuable complement in supporting patients in their end-of-life journey, enhancing the quality of their remaining
PMID: 9069762 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4. NHS Supportive and Palliative Care Specialist Library
Note here, the suggestion that the more experienced the practitioner, the better the results.
is a global public health problem affecting the lives of large numbers of patients and their families. Touch therapies (Healing
Touch (HT), Therapeutic Touch (TT) and Reiki) have been found to relieve pain, but some reviews have suggested there is insufficient
evidence to support their use.
To evaluate the effectiveness of touch therapies (including HT, TT, and
Reiki) on relieving both acute and chronic pain; to determine any adverse effect of touch therapies.
Various electronic databases, including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED and others from their inception
to June 2008 were searched. Reference lists and bibliographies of relevant articles and organizations were checked. Experts
in touch therapies were contacted.
Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) or Controlled Clinical
Trials (CCTs) evaluating the effect of touch on any type of pain were included. Similarly, only studies using a sham placebo
or a 'no treatment' control was included.
Data collection and analysis
Data was extracted and quality assessment
was conducted by two independent review authors. The mean pain intensity for completing all treatment sessions was extracted.
Pain intensity from different pain measurement scales were standardized into a single scale. Comparisons between the effects
of treatment groups and that of control groups were made.
Twenty four studies involving 1153 participants
met the inclusion criteria. There were five, sixteen and three studies on HT, TT and Reiki respectively. Participants exposed
to touch had on average of 0.83 units (on a 0 to ten scale) lower pain intensity than unexposed participants (95% Confidence
Interval: -1.16 to -0.50). Results of trials conducted by more experienced practitioners appeared to yield greater effects
in pain reduction. It is also apparent that these trials yielding greater effects were from the Reiki studies. Whether more
experienced practitioners or certain types of touch therapy brought better pain reduction should be further investigated.
Two of the five studies evaluating analgesic usage supported the claim that touch therapies minimized analgesic usage. The
placebo effect was also explored. No statistically significant (P = 0.29) placebo effect was identified.
Touch therapies may have a modest effect in pain relief. More studies on HT and Reiki in relieving pain are needed. More
studies including children are also required to evaluate the effect of touch on children.
therapies (Healing Touch, Therapeutic Touch and Reiki) for the treatment of pain relief for adults
Touch therapies (Healing
Touch, Therapeutic Touch and Reiki) have been found to be useful in pain relief for adults and children. Pain is a global
public health problem affecting the lives of large numbers of patients and their families. This review aims to evaluate the
effectiveness of touch therapies for relieving pain, and determine the possible adverse effects of touch therapies. Although
the lack of sufficient data means that the results are inconclusive, the evidence that does exist supports the use of touch
therapies in pain relief. Studies involving more experienced practitioners tend to yield greater effects in pain reduction.
It is also apparent that studies with greater effects are carried out by highly experienced Reiki practitioners. Further investigation
should be conducted on whether or not a more experienced practitioner or a certain type of touch therapy provides better pain
reduction. The claim that touch therapies reduce analgesic usage is substantially supported. The placebo effect has been also
widely explored. No statistically significant placebo effect has yet been identified except through one study on children.
The effect of touch therapies on pain relief in children requires further investigation. No adverse effect has yet been identified.
This review suffers from a major limitation: the small number of studies and insufficient data. As a results of inadequate
data, the effects of touch therapies cannot be clearly declared. This review shows that there is still a need for higher quality
studies on the effectiveness of touch therapies in pain relief, especially studies on Healing Touch and Reiki. Future studies
should make a concerted effort to systematically document side effects and report the experience of the practitioners to allow
for the evaluation of the relationships between treatment effect and experience of practitioners. Future experiments should
also follow the CONSORT statement when reporting in scientific journals, which helps to substantiate the reliability and validity
of quality assessments.
Can Reiki help with addiction treatment?
Milton, G., & Chapman, E.
benefits of Reiki treatment in drug and alcohol rehabilitation programs.
Pathways to healing: Enhancing Life Through
Complementary Therapies, Conference Proceedings 1995 September; 24-25.
Canberra: Royal College of Nursing Australia.
Reiki help with cancer-related fatigue?
Pilot crossover trial of Reiki versus rest for treating cancer-related fatigue.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 Mar;6(1):25-35
Tsang KL, Carlson LE, Olson K.
Department of Psychology, University of
Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Fatigue is an extremely common side effect experienced during cancer treatment and recovery.
Limited research has investigated strategies stemming from complementary and alternative medicine to reduce cancer-related
fatigue. This research examined the effects of Reiki, a type of energy touch therapy, on fatigue, pain, anxiety, and overall
quality of life. This study was a counterbalanced crossover trial of 2 conditions: (1) in the Reiki condition, participants
received Reiki for 5 consecutive daily sessions, followed by a 1-week washout monitoring period of no treatments, then 2 additional
Reiki sessions, and finally 2 weeks of no treatments, and (2) in the rest condition, participants rested for approximately
1 hour each day for 5 consecutive days, followed by a 1-week washout monitoring period of no scheduled resting and an additional
week of no treatments. In both conditions, participants completed questionnaires investigating cancer-related fatigue (Functional
Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue subscale [FACT-F]) and overall quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy,
General Version [FACT-G]) before and after all Reiki or resting sessions. They also completed a visual analog scale (Edmonton
Symptom Assessment System [ESAS]) assessing daily tiredness, pain, and anxiety before and after each session of Reiki or rest.
Sixteen patients (13 women) participated in the trial: 8 were randomized to each order of conditions (Reiki then rest; rest
then Reiki). They were screened for fatigue on the ESAS tiredness item, and those scoring greater than 3 on the 0 to 10 scale
were eligible for the study. They were diagnosed with a variety of cancers, most commonly colorectal (62.5%) cancer, and had
a median age of 59 years. Fatigue on the FACT-F decreased within the Reiki condition (P=.05) over the course of all 7 treatments.
In addition, participants in the Reiki condition experienced significant improvements in quality of life (FACT-G) compared
to those in the resting condition (P <.05). On daily assessments (ESAS) in the Reiki condition, presession 1 versus postsession
5 scores indicated significant decreases in tiredness (P <.001), pain (P <.005), and anxiety (P<.01), which were
not seen in the resting condition. Future research should further investigate the impact of Reiki using more highly controlled
designs that include a sham Reiki condition and larger sample sizes.
PMID: 17351024 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Can Reiki help with depression?
The following is a summary by Pat Cougar of the research article "Long-Term
Effects of Energetic Healing on Symptoms of Psychological Depression and Self-Perceived Stress" by Adina Goldman Shore,
PhD. Originally published in the May/June 2004, Vol. 10, No. 3 issue of Alternative Therapies magazine, reprints of the original
article may be obtained by contacting: InnoVision Communications, 169 Saxony Road, Suite 103, Encinitas, CA 92024; phone,
(866) 828-2962 or (760) 633-3910; email, email@example.com
Dr. Adina Goldman Shore's article is
the result of a one-year study of the effects of Reiki, a form of energy healing, on psychological depression and self-reported
stress. The study investigated the hypothesis that it is the Reiki energy itself, and not the "hands on" touch,
that is the healing factor, and examined the long-term effects of Reiki on depression and stress. Dr. Shore also provides
some basic information regarding the uses of Reiki, including it usefulness in psychotherapy.
with symptoms of depression and stress volunteered for this study. Participant were randomly assigned to one of three groups:
Hands-on (touch) Reiki, Distance (non-touch) Reiki, and distance Reiki placebo. Participants were not aware of which group
would be receiving placebo Reiki. Twelve Reiki Masters, and three second degree Reiki practitioners were chosen to conduct
the one to one and one-half hour sessions. Each participant received one treatment weekly for six weeks. The article describes
the protocols for the selection of Reiki practitioners and participants for the study, as well as uniformity in the manner
in which sessions were conducted.
Three tests, designed to measure levels of depression and stress, were administered
to each participant before and after the series of six sessions. One year later, the participants retook the three tests.
After testing was completed, the control/placebo group received another six weeks of Reiki treatments, this time with actual
Reiki, and the three tests were administered to this group again.
Findings of the study demonstrated that there were
no changes in the control/placebo group until they received the six sessions of actual Reiki a year after the first six placebo
sessions. Both the hands-on and the distance Reiki were effective in relieving symptoms of depression and stress. Distance
Reiki was shown to be slightly more effective than hands on, which ruled out touch as the causative factor, although the difference
may have been influenced in part by the project's design (please see original article for details). The results of the placebo
group served to rule out any changes due to expectations of the participants. Re-testing a year later demonstrated that the
positive results of the six Reiki treatments had remained intact.
Dr. Shore suggests combining Reiki with traditional
forms of treatment for psychological depression, because of Reiki's effectiveness, and cost reduction. She encourages further
studies of energy healing on other psychological and physiological disorders.
Can Reiki help with mild cognitive
impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease?
Using Reiki to decrease memory and behavior problems in mild cognitive impairment
and mild Alzheimer's disease.
J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Nov;12(9):911-3.
Crawford SE, Leaver VW, Mahoney SD.
Passamaquoddy Tribe at Pleasant Point, Perry, ME, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVES: This empirical study explored
the efficacy of using Reiki treatment to improve memory and behavior deficiencies in patients with mild cognitive impairment
or mild Alzheimer's disease. Reiki is an ancient hands-on healing technique reputedly developed in Tibet 2500 years ago. DESIGN:
This study was a quasi-experimental study comparing pre- and post-test scores of the Annotated Mini-Mental State Examination
(AMMSE) and Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (RMBPC) after four weekly treatments of Reiki to a control group.
SETTINGS/LOCATION: The participants were treated at a facility provided by the Pleasant Point Health Center on the Passamaquoddy
Indian Reservation. SUBJECTS: The sample included 24 participants scoring between 20 and 24 on the AMMSE. Demographic characteristics
of the sample included an age range from 60 to 80, with 67% female, 46% American Indian, and the remainder white. INTERVENTIONS:
Twelve participants were exposed to 4 weeks of weekly treatments of Reiki from two Reiki Master-level practitioners; 12 participants
served as controls and received no treatment. OUTCOME MEASURES: The two groups were compared on pre- and post-treatment scores
on the AMMSE and the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist (RMBPC). RESULTS: Results indicated statistically significant
increases in mental functioning (as demonstrated by improved scores of the AMMSE) and memory and behavior problems (as measured
by the RMBPC) after Reiki treatment. This research adds to a very sparse database from empirical studies on Reiki results.
CONCLUSION: The results indicate that Reiki treatments show promise for improving certain behavior and memory problems in
patients with mild cognitive impairment or mild Alzheimer's disease. Caregivers can administer Reiki at little or no cost,
resulting in significant societal value by potentially reducing the needs for medication and hospitalization.
17109583 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Qualitative Research and Reiki
1) Reiki and Women
abstracts were obtained from http://chid.nih.gov
Experience of Reiki: Five Middle-Aged Women in the Midwest.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Format (FM): Journal Article (24).
Language(s) (LG): English.
Published (YR): 1998.
Author (AU): Mansour, A.A.; et al.
Source (SO): Alternative and Complementary Therapies
. 4(3): 211-217. June 1998.
Abstract (AB ): This journal article describes a qualitative study of Reiki, a type of
touch therapy, as experienced by the participants. The informants were a practitioner and four female patients, aged 38 to
50 years, from the Canadian Midwest. The patients had received between 15 and 50 sessions of Reiki from different practitioners
under different circumstances and in different settings. Data were collected through in-depth interviewing over a 5-month
period. Thematic analysis of their stories revealed some commonalities and some differences. The overriding theme was one
of experiencing existential changes. All of the women spoke about experiencing major psychospiritual and/or physical changes.
Four additional subthemes were identified: how the participants came to try Reiki, what they experienced during the Reiki
treatments, how they felt after the Reiki sessions (short-term and long-term outcomes), and what was the nature of Reiki.
The article discusses these themes, presents paradigm cases of the five participants, and discusses the implications for future
research. It has 1 table, a list of recommended readings, and 27 references.
Major Descriptors (MJ): Treatment Evaluation.
Reiki. Alternative Medicine.
Verification/Update Date (VE): 199908.
Notes (NT): Copyright:
Accession Number (AN): AMJA01088.
2) Complementary Therapies in Critical Care
Relatives' Lived Experiences
of Complementary Therapies in a Critical Care Department - A Phenomenological Study.
Subfile: Complementary and Alternative
Format (FM): Journal Article (24).
Language(s) (LG): English.
Year Published (YR): 1999.
(AU): Brown, B.; et al.
Source (SO): Australian Critical Care . 12(4): 147-153. 1999.
Abstract (AB) : This journal
article describes the lived experiences of relatives of critically ill patients who received complementary therapies in the
Department of Critical Care Medicine at Royal Hobart Hospital, Tasmania. Twenty relatives of critically ill patients completed
nonstructured, audiotaped interviews. The sample included male and female relatives ranging in age from 18 to 75 years. Each
participant had received aromatherapy, massage, reiki, and either Bach Flower Rescue Remedy or Australian Bush Flower Emergency
Essence. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using a phenomenological transformative process to identify common themes.
Results revealed a central theme of extending and enriching a caring atmosphere. The complementary therapies were felt to
enhance caring by way of four sub-themes: inspiring calm and relaxation, enhancing connectedness, humanizing the technology,
and adding a spiritual dimension. The findings suggest that complementary therapies can positively influence the lived experiences
of relatives of critically ill patients. The article has 2 figures, 4 tables, and 24 references.
(MJ): Complementary Medicine. Critical Care. Relatives.
Minor Descriptors (MN): Alternative
Verification/Update Date (VE): 200107.
Notes (NT): Copyright: Yes.
Accession Number (AN): AMJA03019.
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